It has been a very log time since I’ve posted anything and thought it was about time I did. So here goes…
This article will briefly walk through the steps to setup an OpenVPN service running on a recently patched Cent OS 7.9 server and using a Fedora based OpenVPN client, where we look at both the command line configuration and Network Manager. The final step will also be to look at an Android based client.
The configuration may need some tweaking for Windows and Mac devices, sadly I don’t have any to test.
Update base Server OS & Install packages
The first step will be to ensure the server is patched up to the latest available baseline and then we will install openvpn and easy-rsa.
For the post, I’m going to assume that easy-rsa is installed on to the OpenVPN server, HOWEVER, in a production environment you should really consider running easy-rsa on a completely seperate machine, one that can be isolated of from the network, as it will hold the private key for your certificate authority.
$ sudo yum update -y
Install OpenVPN on the server which will become your VPN server (sounds obvious I know).
$ sudo yum install -y openvpn easy-rsa
Install easy-rsa (preferrably) on a seperate machine
$ sudo yum install -y easy-rsa
On the server with easy-rsa installed, run the following commands.
$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/easy-rsa/pki $ sudo cp -r /usr/share/easy-rsa/3.0.8 /etc/easy-rsa $ cd /etc/easy-rsa $ sudo cp /usr/share/doc/easy-rsa-3.0.8/vars.example ./vars
Now we have the base directory structure, we need to prepare the vars file which will be used to pre-populate answers to some of our questions. Uncomment the following lines in your vars file and update with the relevant information for you. For example in my lab I used;
set_var EASYRSA_REQ_COUNTRY "GB" set_var EASYRSA_REQ_PROVINCE "Greater London" set_var EASYRSA_REQ_CITY "London" set_var EASYRSA_REQ_ORG "World Domination Co" set_var EASYRSA_REQ_EMAIL "firstname.lastname@example.org" set_var EASYRSA_REQ_OU "Security Department"
Time to build your CA (Certificate Authority)
$ /etc/easy-rsa $ sudo ./easyrsa clean-all $ sudo ./easyrsa build-ca
The above commands will ensure you start with a clean slate. The option “clean-all” removes all previously generated keys and “build-ca”, well… It builds the CA using the above variables.
Create the server private key and certificate using your newly created CA
$ ./easyrsa build-server-full vpn.lab.tobyheywood.com
Stating the obvious – You will need to change vpn.lab.tobyheywood.com to the fully qualified name of your server. Well, actually it doesn’t have to be the FQDN. Many examples show this as being set to just “server”, but as we will cover later, there are reasons you may not want to do that.
When you run the above command you will be prompted to enter a passphrase to secure the servers private key. You don’t have to set a passphrase. If you don’t want to set a passphrase on your servers private key, you can add “nopass” to the command line above.
Things to consider if you do set a passphrase (the more secure option);
- You will need to run systemd-tty-ask-password-agent which will store your passphrase in memory
- You will need to enter this password EVERY time you start the OpenVPN server service
- After every reboot both points above will need to be performed
- If you are setting up the OpenVPN server to reduce the ports exposed to the internet (which is a good idea) and you disable SSH access via your public facing interface (for example its a server in a colo environment), you will definitely need another method of connecting into your server, whether that is simply that you have physical console access, out of band (OOB) management like HPE iLO or Cisco’s IMC, or even simply via another server in your network.
Reasons NOT TO set a passphrase on your server certificate (arguably a less secure option, IF your server gets compromised);
- You don’t need to worry about how you are going to handle unexpected reboots, by not having a passphrase means that the OpenVPN service should just start
- You don’t need to store a password in memory
The choice is your! I’m not going to make a recommendation one way or the other, as depending on the use case, the answer could be very easy be either.
Next we need to generate the Diffie-Hellman key exchange file
$ ./easyrsa gen-dh
At this point you should have configured, the CA (Certificate Authority), which in turn has created the required ca.crt and ca.key files. In addition we have also created a private key and certificate for the server itself and generated the Diffie Hellman key exchange file too.
We now need to copy the following files into the /etc/openvpn directory;
$ sudo cp pki/issued/vpn.tobyheywood.com.crt /etc/openvpn/ $ sudo cp pki/private/vpn.tobyheywood.com.key /etc/openvpn/ $ sudo cp pki/ca.crt /etc/openvpn/ $ sudo cp pki/dh.pem /etc/openvpn/ # Make sure the files are owned by root $ sudo chown root.root /etc/openvpn/* # Lets not forget to make sure the selinux security contexts are set properly $ sudo restorecon /etc/openvpn
We will need to come back to easy-rsa in order to create our client certificates. I shall cover that process shortly
One thing I found when looking for guidance on configuring OpenVPN is that the example configurations don’t tend to provide explanations fas to why they have deviated from the sample configs provided by OpenVPN. One such example is why you should use “tls-crypt” rather than “tls-auth”. I shall cover that off in a short while with some other pertinent pieces of information.
$ sudo cp /usr/share/doc/openvpn-2.4.10/sample/sample-config-files/server.conf /etc/openvpn/
Now that you you have copied the sample server.conf file, take a look using your favourite text editor. There are many options, and masses of commented out sections (lines starting with a “;” or a “#”). I shall focus on what you will need to get started (don’t forget the man page for openvpn, as it lists every option and provides plenty of detail).
You can take the below and create your own server.conf file instead of using the sample if you prefer not to have all of the commented out options.
# The port number - this is the default port 1194 # This can be set to udp or tcp. Recommendation is to ensure this is set to udp. # It provides better performance. proto udp # This can be set to tun or tap and controls the type of VPN tunnel used. From the # sample conf file; # "dev tun" will create a routed IP tunnel, # "dev tap" will create an ethernet tunnel. dev tun # The Certificate Authority certificate ca /etc/openvpn/ca.crt # The OpenVPN server certificate cert /etc/openvpn/vpn.lab.tobyheywood.com.crt # The OpenVPN server private key key /etc/openvpn/vpn.lab.tobyheywood.com.key # The Diffie Hellman key exchange certificate dh dh.pem # Used to define how the network will be divided up to the client. For example # older configurations would allocate a /30 to each client. This is not # recommended. The recommended setting is subnet, essentially meaning the client # is allocated a single IP within the entire subnet allocated for clients. topology subnet # The VPN subnet. Using the below will result in the server being assigned # 10.10.10.1 and client connections will start from 10.10.10.2 and go all the # way up to 10.10.10.254 server 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 # This file keeps trace of the vpn ip addresses assigned to clients. ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt # These are the DNS server IPs that will be provided to clients once a VPN tunnel # has been established. Personally I don't go near Google's free DNS service, as # I'm pretty sure they will log all of the websites and services my users access, # but if you don't have an option... push "dhcp-option DNS 126.96.36.199" push "dhcp-option DNS 188.8.131.52" # Tell clients to route all traffic via the OpenVPN servers IP address rather than # what is provided by DHCP via the local network push "redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp" # Send a ping across the tunnel every 10 seconds, and assume the peer is down if no # ping received within 120 seconds keepalive 10 120 # See below for reason why you should use tls-crypt rather than the default # tls-auth tls-crypt vpn.lab.tobyheywood.com.tlsauth # Enforce the use of a modern encryption cipher. OpenVPN 2.4+ will auto negotiate # this when in TLS mode. cipher AES-256-GCM # Control the maximum number of client connections. max-clients 10 # Run OpenVPN as user nobody and group nobody after initial startup. user nobody group nobody # These options try to avoid accessing certain resources (for example the the # private key and tun device) after downgrading from root to nobody. persist-key persist-tun # OpenVPN service status status openvpn-status.log # OpenVPN main log file log openvpn.log # Logging verbosity - 1-9 can be set, with 9 being really, REALLY verbose, you # you probably don't need more than 6 when debugging verb 3 # Tell clients when the server has restarted so they can autoreconnect. explicit-exit-notify 1 # When the certificate is generated for either the server or the client, it # has an additional attribute added to it. The Extended Key Usage attribute is # used in conjunction with tls-crypt. remote-cert-eku "TLS Web Client Authentication"
TLS crypt verses TLS auth – This is discussed here https://serverfault.com/questions/929484/openvpn-2-4-security-differences-between-tls-crypt-and-tls-auth and based on the excellent explanation I would recommend using tls-crypt rather than tls-auth s it is more secure.
remote-cert-eku – This is used to verify the certificate presented by the server/client. As mentioned above when the certificate is created it has an additional attribute added to it, this is called the Extended Key Usage, this is subtly different depending on whether the OpenVPN configuration is for a Server or a Client.
- Server – Expects client certificates to have “TLS Web Client Authentication”
- Client – Expects the server certificate to have “TLS Web Server Authentication”
Next we need to generate the the tls auth file.
$ openvpn --genkey --secret /etc/openvpn/vpn.lab.tobyheywood.com.tlsauth
Configuring the firewall (firewalld)
Assuming you have followed the configuration examples thus far, the next step will be to configure the firewall. There are two sides to this.
- The Public zone – The zone which has been configured with your public facing interface
- The Trusted zone – This is the zone which we need to configure to allow traffic to flow through the tunnel interface (tun0).
$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service openvpn $ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-masquarade $ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --passthrough ipv4 -t nat A POSTROUTING -s 10.10.10.0/24 -o eno6 -j MASQUERADE $ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=trusted --add-interface tun0 $ sudo firewall-cmd --reload
Note. Using the above example you will need to replace 10.10.10.0/24 with your own desired VPN subnet and also eno6 with your Internet facing (public) interface.
Configuring IP forwarding
Assuming you want to be able to connect to the Internet via your OpenVPN server, you will need to enable IPv4 forwarding. This can be achieved by running the following commands
$ sudo -i # echo "net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1" > /etc/sysctl.conf # exit $ sudo systemctl restart network.service
Start and Enable email@example.com
The last step is to enable the OpenVPN server so that it starts automatically after a reboot and also whilst we are at it, lets make sure it has started up without issues.
$ sudo systemctl start openvpn@server $ sudo systemctl enable openvpn@server $ sudo systemctl status openvpn@server $ sudo cat /etc/openvpn/openvpn.log
Generating Client Certificates
Now that everything looks good from a server perspective we can start to focus on getting a client or two up and running. All clients require a certificate for authentication purposes. And the process is pretty simple.
All of the following steps need to be performed on the same machine which was used to create your CA (Certificate Authority). For the client certificate again you have the option to not specify a passphrase using the “nopass” parameter, however for client certificates I encourage you to use a strong passphrase.
$ ./easyrsa build-client-full myclient.lab.tobyheywood.com Note: using Easy-RSA configuration from: /home/toby/easy-rsa/vars Using SSL: openssl OpenSSL 1.1.1k FIPS 25 Mar 2021 Generating a RSA private key .......................................................+++++ .....................................................................................................+++++ writing new private key to '/home/toby/easy-rsa/pki/easy-rsa-24006.mj1k8n/tmp.HkGd2m' Enter PEM pass phrase: Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase: ----- Using configuration from /home/toby/easy-rsa/pki/easy-rsa-24006.mj1k8n/tmp.9x5fSs Enter pass phrase for /home/toby/easy-rsa/pki/private/ca.key: Check that the request matches the signature Signature ok The Subject's Distinguished Name is as follows commonName :ASN.1 12:'myclient.lab.tobyheywood.com' Certificate is to be certified until Jul 22 18:35:04 2023 GMT (825 days) Write out database with 1 new entries Data Base Updated
Now that you have generated the new private key and certificate for your new client, we now need to create a configuration file for the client.
$ cd $ mkdir -p client_config_bundle/myclient 4 vim client_config_bundle/myclient/myclient.labtobyheywood.com.ovpn
Using the below as a template, and paste it into a blank text file.
tls-client ca ca.crt cert myclient.lab.tobyheywood.com.crt key myclient.lab.tobyheywood.com.key tls-crypt vpn.lab.tobyheywood.com.tlsauth remote-cert-eku "TLS Web Server Authentication" # Remote end point - replace 184.108.40.206 with your openvpn servers public IP proto udp remote 220.127.116.11 1194 udp
I would recommend the file name is based on the clients hostname and it should have the suffix .ovpn (this is beneficial if using the OpenVPN Connect client on your Android device).
$ cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/ # Or where ever you have installed easy-rsa $ cp issued/myclient.lab.tobyheywood.com.crt client_config_bundle/myclient/ $ cp private/myclient.lab.tobyheywood.com.key client_config_bundle/myclient/ $ cp ca.crt client_config_bundle/myclient/ $ sudo cp ../vpn.lab.tobyheywood.com.tlsauth client_config_bundle/myclient/ $ cp <path to client configuration file> client_config_bundle/myclient/
Configuring your clients
Client Configuration – Command line using openvpn
Above, you will have hopefully created a directory which contains all the files you need to make a successful client connection. To recap, you should have;
$ sudo openvpn --config /path/to/your/client-config.ovpn
Because OpenVPN will create a new bridged interface, the example below will need to be run via sudo. If however you want to remove the need for running it with sudo you can by configuring Unprivileged mode (Linux only), and it is discussed here (just scroll down to the Unprivileged mode section – https://openvpn.net/community-resources/hardening-openvpn-security/
Client Configuration – Network Manager
Configuring OpenVPN via the gnome NetworkManager applet is pretty straight forward.
Note. This method does require you to store your password on the machine, which will be stored on disk. If you are concerned in anyway, this option may not be for you.
In a terminal session, type the following to install the required additional package.
$ sudo dnf install NetworkManager-openvpn
- Press the Super button or click on top left hand corner of your screen (Gnome)
- Type settings and select the Settings icon
- You should see a window similar to below
- Click the + to the right of VPN.
- Select OpenVPN
In the Add VPN window, you will need to provide;
- A name for the new VPN connection
- Gateway – This is either the fully qualified domain name of your openvpn server or its IP address (For the real secret concious of you, IP address is the better way to go as there will be no DNS lookup involved)
- Type – Certificate (TLS)
- CA Certificate – Select your ca.crt file
- User certificate – Select your client certtificate file
- User Private Key – Select your client private key file
- User key password – Enter the passphrase for your private key
- Select the Icon on the far right of the password field and select Store for user only
As mentioned above, the icon on the far right of the password field can be clicked to show different options. I have found that as my user doesn’t have sufficient access to start up network connections, without using sudo, that the only successful way to make this work is to store your password, or have no password at all.
I found a discussion here which talks about the type of error I see in journalctl, which for reference is “Failed to request VPN secrets #1: No agents were available for this request“. I suspect that if you configure OpenVPN to run as unprivileged user from the very start and you manually configure the tun/tap interface that you will probably find the password prompt will work. But I haven’t tested this.
- Now click Advanced and select “Verify name exactly” and enter the name of your server (as you provided when you created the openvpn server certificate). This is where have the fully qualified name can be a benefit because it means something to everyone, rather than just having server which doesn’t really help anyone understand what you are connecting to.
- Set Mode as TLS-Crypt
- Select the tlsauth file that you generated earlier
The last step is click apply. This will return you to the
Once you have applied your configuration as above with your ca.crt, your private key and certificate, plus your tlsauth file you should now be able to start your VPN tunnel. If it doesn’t work I would suggest making sure you can connect via the client first and then compare the parameters in your ovpn file with what you have set in the Network Manager window.
Client Configuration – Android
As with the other client configurations, there isn’t really much to it, so lets get stuck in.
- Create a new client private key and cert
- Copy the private key and cert to a dedicated folder along with the tlsauth file and the ca.crt file
- Create a .ovpn file for your client
- Install the OpenVPN Connect app on your device
I use a secure cloud storage service to get all the files onto my device, but you could connect your device to your computer via USB and copy the files across.
- Once you have all the required files stored on your device, launch the OpenVPN connect app
- Select file
- Navigate through the Android internal storage to where you have copied your certificates, keys and configuration file
- Select the .ovpn file
- Tap Import
- Either accept the default Profile Name or change it to something more to your liking
- If you wish you can store the Private Key password/passphrase in the app
- Tick the Connect after import option
- Click Add
- You should now have a successful connection to your OpenVPN server